Consulting (born consulting - consulting) - type of services (as usually paid) to clients who are interested in optimization of their business. In general consultancy services includes analysis of existing business processes, customer support prospects for the development and use of scientific, technical, organizational and economic innovation in view of the subject area and features client's business.
Put simply, a consulting company (konsulter) eventually undertakes to increase profit client to x per cent for the period. For this, as Generally konsalteru delegated broad authority, up to inclusion in leadership komapnii client specialist konsaltera with the right decision strategic decisions.
Personal Consulting - a new line of consulting related to individual counseling on the relationship between people, the organization of individual rhythm and tempo of life. Unlike psychological counseling to address psychological problems of personality, aims to create strategies for personal development, the detuning of consciousness, forming a system of relations.
Types of consulting:
As we have previously discovered areas of consulting can be set. But in each of the directions are distinguished the following types of consulting services:
Analytics. Analysis of the enterprise, production efficiency, the current market situation, the movement of prices;
Forecasting. Based on the analysis of the aligned projections of the company for the future;
Counseling. Tips affecting any part of the enterprise. They may affect the work as soon as the client company and the entire market in general. An audit of the company-client;
Direct participation in the activities of the client company. Planning, organization of enterprise management, the introduction of information systems, staff recruitment, various trainings, etc.
Conflict of laws is an institution of international law and intranational interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a "foreign" law element where different judgments will result depending on which jurisdiction's laws are applied as the lex causae.
In civil law systems, private international law is a branch of the internal legal system dealing with the determination of which state law is applicable to situations crossing over the borders of one particular state and involving a "foreign element" (élément d'extranéité), (collisions of law, conflict of laws). Lato sensu (at large) it also includes international civil procedure and international commercial arbitration (collisions of jurisdiction, conflict of jurisdictions), as well as citizenship law(which strictly speaking is part of public law).
In common law systems, conflict of laws, firstly, is concerned with determining whether the proposed forum has jurisdiction to adjudicate and is the appropriatevenue for dealing with the dispute, and, secondly, with determining which of the competing state's laws are to be applied to resolve the dispute. It also deals with the enforcement of foreign judgments.
There are two major streams of legal thought on the nature of conflict of laws. One group of researchers regard Conflict of Laws as a part of international law, claiming that its norms are uniform, universal and obligatory for all states. This stream of legal thought in Conflict of Laws is called "universalism". Other researchers maintain the view that each State creates its own unique norms of Conflict of Laws pursuing its own policy. This theory is called "particularism" in Conflict of Laws.
Private international law is divided on two major areas:
- Private international law "sensu stricto" (narrow sense) comprising conflict of laws rules which determine the law of which country (state) is applicable to specific relations.
- Private international law "sensu lato" (broader sense) which comprises private international law "sensu stricto" (conflict of laws rules) and material legal norms which have direct extraterritorial character and are imperatively applied (material norms of law crossing the borders of State) - usually regulations onreal property, consumer law, currency control regulations, insurance and banking regulations.